Scandinavian language challenge day 10

Today I worked through the third chapter of Danish in three months, covering:

  • adjectives
  • commands and requests
  • possession
  • names of days, months and seasons (and holidays)
  • other words

Adjectives

The following suffixes are added to attributive adjectives modifying indefinite nouns: nothing (common gender); -t (neuter), -e (plural).

For definite nouns, den (common) / det (neuter) / de (plural) precedes the noun, and the suffix -e is added.
Note that den / det / de is the same as the word for it / they.

Examples:

  • en stor bil (a large car); et stort gardin (a large curtain); store begivenheder (great events)
  • this indefinite form is also used after copulas such as at vaere (to be) and at blive (to become). For example: gardinet er stort.
  • den store bil (the large car); det store gardin (the large curtain); de store begivenheder (the great events)
  • the definite form can also be used with a definitive article but without a noun, for example: den store (the large person); det store (the large thing); de store (the big ones)

Exceptions and spelling rules:

  • some adjectives don’t add -t in the neuter, including: adjectives that end in -sk; -t; -s; a vowel other than å, as well as glad (happy) and fremmed (foreign, strange). Nevertheless, ny (new) and fri (free) do add -t in the neuter.
  • some adjectives don’t add -e, including: those ending in -s or in a vowel (except for ny and fri).
  • an -et ending of a polysyllabic adjective turns into -ede. Examples: de snavsede fingre (the dirty fingers, from snavset);
    den udmattede kok (the tired cook, from udmattet).
  • before adding the -e suffix, many adjectives double a final consonant that follows a stressed vowel. This doubling also occurs for adjectives ending in -som. Example: dum (dumb) becomes dumme; smuk (beautiful) becomes smukke; let (light) becomes lette; morsom (amusing)becomes morsomme.
  • adjectives ending in -el, en, -er delete the -e before adding the -e suffix. Examples: magre from mager (thin); lækre from lækker (tasty); gamle from gammel (old)

Adjectives (like English or German):

  • sød (sweet); blå (blue); malet (painted); engelsk (English); fremragende (outstanding); snu (cunning); stakkels (poor, pitiable); kort (short); farvet (coloured); høj (high, loud); falsk (false); grå (grey); tapper (brave); grøn (green); gul (yellow); fin (fine); ung (young); klog (clever); stærk (strong); rasende (furious); mærkelig (remarkable, strange); flydende (fluent)

Other adjectives:

  • morsom (amusing); dejlig (lovely, eg dejlige oplevelser = lovely experiences); dårlig (bad); gammaldags (old-fashioned); tysk (German); rar (kind); ting (heavy); blød (soft); slap (limp); hurtig (fast); heldig (lucky); vidunderlig (wonderful)

Lille (plural: små) means little, small.
Lidt means a little / rather / somewhat.

Den lille skomager er lidt træt.
The little shoemaker is a little tired.


Commands and requests

The imperative form of verbs, used to express commands, is formed by:

  • removing the final -e from infinitives that end in -e.
    If the resulting form would end in a double consonant, the consonant becomes single.
  • if the infinitive ends in a stressed vowel, retaining that vowel.

Almost all imperatives are pronounced with a glottal stop in the final syllable.

In simple command sentences, the imperative comes first and all consituents of the sentence follow in their normal order. Examples:

  • Spis nu ikke for meget! Don’t eat too much now!
  • Drik ikke mere vin! Don’t drink more wine!

In practice, though, negative commands tend to include the verbs skulle or måtte (covered in next chapter) or the phrases lad være med or hold op med. Examples:

  • Lad nu være med at spise for meget
  • Hold op med at drikke vin nu.

At lade = let, allow

Please is vær (så) venlig at [plus infinitive]
venlig = friendly

Other ways to express requests:

  • Ræk mig lige salter. Please pass me the salt
  • Tag lige ad hjæp her! Can you please help here?

Verbs (like English and German): skrive (write); berette (report); snitte (carve); undgå (avoid); stå (stand); undersøge (investigate); fløte (whistle); fejre (celebrate);

Verbs (other): skylle (rinse); efterse (check); forny (renew); hente (fetch); glo (stare); flytte (move); tro (believe); vente (wait); holde bryllup med (marry) [sølv / goldbryllup = silver / golden wedding]

Possession

The possessive (genitive) form is formed by adding the suffix -s. [‘(s) if the nouns already ends in s.] Example:

Sangerens klare stimme er som en engellyd / lyden af en engel.
The singer’s clear voice is like the sound of an angel.

Days, months, seasons

søndag, mandag, tirsdag, onsdag, torsdag, fredag, lørdag

januar, februar, marts, april, maj, juni, juli, august, september, oktober, november, december

Forår, sommer, efterår, vinter

early and late summer = forsommer, sensommer

Some of the other words in this chapter

Nouns (like English or German):

  • en kage (cake); et smil (smile)et hjerte (heart); et måltid (meal); et eventyr (fairy tale, adventure); en sag (-er, thing); en smerte (pain); vejret (the weather); et ansigt (face); et forslag (suggestion); et skib (ship); værdier (values); regering (government); en abe (ape); et gardin (-er, curtain); et mønstre (-stre, pattern [like German Muster?]); en rediningshelkopter (-e, rescue helicopter); en løber (-e, runner); en restaurant (-er); billeder (pictures); sprog (language); butik (-ken, -ker, shop); urmager (clockmaker); en træner (-e, trainer); en farve (-r, colour); en side (-r, page); en gård (farm); en ejer (-e, owner); forældre (parents); et hjem (-, home); et angreb (-, attack); en magt (-er, power); kone (-r, wife); en skate (-te, treasure, darling)

Other nouns:

  • gerning (deed); frokoster (lunches); minder (memories); hukommelse (memories); en seng (-e, bed); et værelse (-r, room); et fodboldhold (-. football team); en glæde (-r, pleasure); et kød (-, pleasure)

Other words and phrases:

  • lige så… some (just as … as): indtil (until); altsammen (all [of it]); i morgen (tomorrow); jamen (well); så (then)

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