Scandinavian language challenge day 12

Today I worked through the third chapter of Norwegian in three months, covering:

  • commands and requests
  • question words
  • more negative words
  • demonstratives
  • numbers to 100
  • other words

Commands and requests

The imperative is the same as the stem of the verb. It is formed by removing the suffix -e from the infinitive.
For verbs ending in a stressed vowel, the stem is the same as the infinitive.

The negative imperative includes the word ikke immediately before or immediately after the imperative.
Example: Vent ikke på meg / Ikke vent på meg. Don’t wait for me.

Verbs (like English or German): betale (pay); gå (go); spise (eat); komme tilbake (come back); stå (stand); se på (look at); se etter (look for); like (like); koste (cost); reise (bort) (leave); råke (smoke); mene (mean); prøve (try); rense (clean); salte (salt); a legge (ned) (arrange); servere (serve); smake (taste)

Other verbs: vente (wait); stanse (stop); stenge (close, eg shops); spørre (ask); har det bra (feel well);

Question words

Hvor (where); når (when); hvordan (how); hvem (who); hvorfor (why) hvilken / hvilket / vilke (which); hva (what); hvor mange (how many); hvor mye (how much)

More negative words

Aldri (never); ingen / ikke noen (no one, no); intet / ikke noe / ingenting (neuter) (nothing, no); ikke lenger (no longer); ikke mer (no more)

Demonstratives

The most common demonstratives are denne / dette / disse (this / these) and den / det de (that / those). They are always stressed.

For emphasis, her (here) or der (there) is sometimes added. The demonstratives can be used before a noun or alone.
Example: Denne bilen (her) er min, men den (der) tilhører min nabo.
This car is mine but that one belongs to my neighbour.

Numbers to 100

Zero = null

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

en, ett
to
tre
fire
fem
seks
syv
åtte
ni
ti

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

elleve
tolv
tretten
fjorten
femten
seksten
sytten
atten
nitten
tyve

Larger numbers (official system, tens before units): 21 tjueen; 22 tjueto etc.
In this official system, sju replaces syv (7), tjue replaces tyve (20) and tretti (30) replaces tredve.

Larger numbers (traditional system: units-og-tens): 21 enogtyve; 22 toogtyve etc

30
40
50
60

tredve [tretti]
førti
femti
seksti

70
80
90
100

sytti
åtti
nitti
(ett)hundre

Some of the other words in this chapter

Nouns (like English or German):

  • leksojonen, leksen (lesson); himmelen (sky); søster (sister); sønn (son); språket (the language); kassen (the cash desk); frue (madam);

Nouns about food:

  • skinken (the ham); skinkerullen (the luncheon meat); spekeskinke (the cured ham); spekepølsen (the cured sausage); fenalåret (the cured leg of lamb); spesialiteten (the speciality); brødet (the bread); kaken (the cake); smørbrødpålegget (cooked meats, sandwich filling); skiven (the slice); røkelaks (smoked salmon); rakørreten (the corned trout);

Other nouns:

  • øvelse (exercise); din aftensmat (your support); kolnialhandel (grocer’s); ledig stelling (vacant post); delikatesseforretningen (the deli); kjømannen (the shopkeeper); landturen (picnic); trebutten (the small wooden tub); lukten (the smell)

Adjectives:

  • stille (still) nærmest (nearest); først (first); fransk (French); unforglemmelig (unforgettable); moderne (fashionale); utmerket (excellent); laget av (made from); nyfisket (freshly caught); alt (all)

Other words: nok (enough); omtrent (about); minst (at least); før (before); kanskje (perhaps)

Phrases:

  • så tykk (that thick); det kommer på (it comes to); jeg vil gjerne ha (I’d like); lag me få (let me have)har De lyst til? (would you like?); å klare seg (to be enough); mye bedre (much better) Hvor mye koster det? How much does it cost?

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