Scandinavian language challenge day 16

Today I worked through chapter 5 of Danish in three months, covering:

  • numbers (cardinal and ordinal)
  • past tense and past participle
  • some common irregular verbs
  • perfect tense
  • other words

Numbers


0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
20
21

Cardinal
nul
én / et
to
tre
fire
fem
seks
syv
otte
ni
ti
elleve
tolv
tretten
tyve
enogtyve

Ordinal

første
anden
tredie
fjerde
femte
sjette
syvende
ottende
niende
tiende
elvte
tolvte
trettende
tyvende
enogtyvende

14-19 are: fjorten, femten, seksten, sytten, atten, nitten. Their ordinals are formed by adding -de, for example fjortende.

For the 10s from 30 to 90, the cardinals are: tred(i)ve; fyrre, halvtreds, tres, halvfjerds, firs, halvfems. The corresponding ordinals are tre(i)vte, fyrretyvende, halvtredsindstyvende, tresindstyvende, halvfjerdindstyvende, firsindstyvende, halvfemsindstyvende.

The numbers 30 to 90 remain from an old vigesimal system (one based on 20) . For example, tre(d)s for 60 is a shortened form of older tredsindstyve (3 times 20). 50 is halfway up from 40 towards 60: halvtredsindstyve. This is shortened to halvtreds but the longer form is still used in forming the ordinal.

100 is (et) hundrede (100th: den/det hundrede).
101 is hundrede og én/é (101st: hundredførste)
231 is to hundrede og enogtredive
8,010 is otte tusind og to
2 million: to millioner

Halvanden = one and a half.
But then to-en-halv, tre-en-halv etc.

Other numerical expressions:

  • for det første (firstly);
  • for det andet (secondly);
  • én gang (once); to gange (twice); én ad gangen (one at a time); for tusinde gang (for the thousandth time [no definite article]);
  • hver femte gang (every fifth time);
  • hundrede af mennessker (hundreds of people)

Past tense and past participle

Most weak verbs form their past tense by adding -ede and their past participle by adding -et. A few weak verbs add -te for the past and -t for the past participle.

Infinitive
Meaning
Past tense
Past participle

(at) handle
act, trade
handlede
handlet

(at) tale
speak
talte
talt

Like its German cognate pflegen, the verb at pleje (literally to nurse or care for) translates the English used to in these sense of a past habit. Vant til means accustomed to:
Jeg plejede at ryge – nu er jeg vant til tyggegummi is stedet
I used to smoke – now I am used to chewing gum instead

Some common irregular verbs

Infinitive
har
være
bede
blive
bringe
følge

give
gøre

komme
ligge
lægge
ryge
se
sidde
sige
smøre
spørge
sælge
sætte
tage
tælle

Meaning
have
be
ask, pray
stay, become
bring
follow
get
give
do
walk, leave
come, put
lie
lay
smoke
see, look
sit
say
grease, butter
ask
sell
put, set
take
count

Past
havde
var
bad
blev
bragte
fulgte
fik
gav
gjorde
gik
kom

lagde
rog

sad
sagde
smurte
spurgte
solgte
satte
tog
talte

Participle
haft
været
bedt
blevet
bragt
fulgt
fået
givet
gjort
gået
kommet
ligget
lagt
røget
set
siddet
sagt
smurt
spurgt
solgt
sat
taget
talt

Perfect tense

As in many other Indo-European languages, the perfect tense is formed by using the present tense of an auxiliary and the past participle. The auxiliary is usually har, but er is used for some verbs of motion or change of state, such as forsvine (disappear), rejse, komme, blive. Unlike in German (ich bin gewesen), the auxiliary har is used with været (har været).

Examples: Jeg har handlet, jeg er blevet, Ulykken er sket (the accident has happened), Det er begyndt at sne (it has begun to snow)

Sometimes, verbs of motion take the auxiliary har instead of er to emphasis the type of movement. Examples:

Nu er de endelig gået. Now they have finally gone.
Har du gået langs stranden. Have you walked along the beach?
Henning har rejst hele året og nu er han rejst til Alaska.
Henning has travelled the whole year and has now gone to Alaska.

The pluperfect is formed by using the past tense of the auxiliary (hafde, var)
Lægen havde selv været meget syg.
The doctor had himself been very ill.

Some of the other words in this chapter

Nouns (like English or German):

  • et år (-, year); et jubliæum (-æer, jubliee, anniversary); hr. (Mr.); en brevkasse (-r, letter box); en flod (-er, river); en nyhed (-er, news); en topsælger (-e, top salesperson); en masse (a lot); en vej (-e, road); en kamp (-e, fight); borgmester (-tre, mayor); en pakke (-r, packet); en tyv (-e, thief); løn (-nen, salary); en drøm (-me, dream); en udkant (-er, outskirt, edge); en halvdel (-e, half); en flagstand (-stænger, flagpole); et rum (-, room); nabo (-er, neighbour)

Nouns (farms and gardens):

  • landmand (landmænd, farmer); en plæne (-r, lawn); et blomsterbed (-e, flowerbed); en køkkenhave (-r, kitchen garden); et stuehus (-e, farmhouse); jord (-en, land); et drivhus (-e, greenhouse); en busk (-e, bush); et egetræ (-, oak tree); en hytte (-r, hut); en stald (-e, stable); en hest (-e, horse); en mark (-er, field); en rest (-er, remainder); et hjørne (-r, corner); en egn (-e, area);

Nouns (other):

  • en ven (-ner, friend); en avis (-er, newspaper); en mellemad (-der, sandwich); et sølvtøj (silverware); en lejlighed (-er, opportunity); en bakke (-r, tray); et hold (team); indbygger (-e, inhabitant); et springvand (-, fountain, vand = water);

Verbs (like English or German):

  • beskrive (describe); kysse (kiss); hoste (cough); hamre (hammer); høre (hear); træne (train); leve (live); regne (rain); søge (-te, -t, look for); udleje (hire out); holde (keep eg animals);

Verbs (other):

  • lave (make); er født (was born); savne (miss [someone]); indrette; (install); spørge om vej (ask the way); gå fallit (go bankrupt); tage på i vægt (put on weight); tabe (-te, -t, los); advare (warn); lytte (listen);

Adjectives: uærlig (dishonest [German unehrlich); mulig (possible); herlig (splendid); frodig (fertile); velholdt (well kept)

Other words and phrases:

  • til (for); straks (immediately); da (when, eg da båden kom: when the boat came); ud (out); igen (again); om dagen (per day); helt (completely); et til (one more); tilbage (back); herover (over here); så … som (as ..as); derfor (therefore); på dansk (in Danish); ikke længere (no longer); kærlig hilsen (with love from)

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