Scandinavian language challenge day 24

Today I worked through chapter 8 of Norwegian in three months, covering:

  • pluperfect
  • verbs conjugated with være
  • prepositions
  • det er
  • indefinite pronouns
  • more on numbers
  • weather
  • other words

Pluperfect

The pluperfect is formed by combining the past tense of the auxiliary har with the past participle.

Vi hadde vært på en fotballkamp
(We had been to a football match)

Verbs conjugated with være

As in Danish (but not Swedish), the perfect and pluperfect tenses ares traditionally formed with være rather than ha for verbs of motion or change, such as gå (go), komme (come), reise (bort)(leave), bli (become), begynne (begin) and sovne (fall asleep):

  • Hun er nettopp kommet. (she has just arrived)

But colloquially, ha is often used even for these verbs.

Prepositions

i

over
under
foran
bak
ved siden av
til
fra
av

in
on / at
over
under
in front of
behind
next to
until
from
of / by

for
mot
for
etter
mellom
uten
med
ved
om
innen

for
against *
before
after
between
without
with
at
in /about **
within/before

* Mot = against /towards
** Om = in / about / round


Examples:

  • på bordet (on the table)
  • foran huset (in front of the house)
  • bak skapet (behind the cupboard)
  • ved siden av Rådhuset (next to the town hall)
  • kongen av Norge (king of Norway)
  • for deg (for you)
  • mot vinden (against the wind)
  • ved vinduet (at the window)
  • før jul (before Christmas)
  • om to måneder (in two months)
  • innen et år (within a year)

Det er

Det (or der) is used with er or finnes to express there is / there are:

  • Det er (or Det finnes) blomster på bordet
    (there are flowers on the table)

Indefinite pronouns

noen / noe / noen
ingen, intet, ingen *
(en) annen / (en annet) / andre
all / alt / alle
(en)hver / (et)hvert
ingenting
allting
en, man
mange

some(one/thing), any(one/thing)
no, no one, nothing
another, other(s)
all, everyone, everything
each, every(one)
nothing
everything
one, someone, you, they
many

Intet = ikke noe, ingen (plural) = ikke noen (plural)


Examples:

  • noen må gjøre det (someone must do it)
  • ingen var til stede (on-one was there)
  • det var ingenting igjen (there was nothing left)
  • vi hadde ikke noe annet valg (we had no other choice)
  • en annen gang, under andre omstendigheter
    (another time, under other circumstances)
  • han hadde mistet alle pengene (sine) (he had lost all his money)
  • det var ikke verdt alt strevt (it was’t worth all the trouble)
  • einhver idiot vet det (every fool knows that)
  • de koster 10 kroner hver (they cost 10 kroner each)
  • jeg nyter hvert øyeblikk (i enjoy every moment)

Litt (a little) is often used with a noun instead of noe:
Jeg køpte noen pølser, litt ost og litt frukt.
(I bought some sausages, some cheese and some fruit.)

More on numbers

101
255
1 150

(ett) hundre og en
to hundre og femogfemti
ett tusen et hundre og femti

Hundre and tusen take no endings when counting, but do appear as plurals when used as nouns: tusener og atter tusener (thousands and thousands).

Others: en milliion (plural -er); en milliard (-er); et par (couple); et dusin (dozen); et snes (a score); én gang (once); to ganger (twice)

Weather

Hvordan er været id dag?
Det er pent vær / dårlig vær
Det er solskinn
Det er varmt / tåket / kaldt
Det regner / sner (or snør)
Det blåser / tiner (or tør)

How is the weather today?
The weather is fine bad
The sun is shining
It is warm / foggy / cold
It is raining / snowing
It is windy / thawing

Some of the other words in this chapter

Nouns (like in English or German): utlendingen (the foreigner); sjansen (the chance); anledningen til (opportunity to); poenget (the point); språkkurset (the language course); anstregelsen (the effort); fjernsynet (TV); Slottet (the Palace); postkassen (letter box); supermarkedet (supermarket); brillene (the glasses); reisesyken (the travel sickness); måltidet (the mealtime);

Other nouns: oppførselen (the behaviour); en by (town); sengen (the bed); kjølskapet (fridge); torget (marketplace); vanskeligheten (the difficulty)

Verbs (like in English or German): planlegge (-la, lagt, plan); mestre (master); bestemme (decide); slå; (slo, slått) av (switch off); studere (study); reagere (react); fortelle (-talte, -talt, talt); telle (-lte, -lt, count); vende tilbake (-dte, -dt, return); ligge (lå, ligget, be situated)

Other verbs: gifte seg med (marry)

Adjectives: ivrig (eager); bærbar (portable); usocial (unsociable); forståelsesfull (understanding); rik (rich)

Other words: ganske (quite); altfor (far too); til a være (for); midt i (in the middle of)

Phrases: under krigen (during the war); på tre måneder (in 3 months); like interessert (just as interested)

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