Scandinavian language challenge day 25

Today I worked through chapter 8 of Danish in three months, covering:

  • reflexive pronouns
  • common adverbs
  • conjunctions
  • other words

Reflexive pronouns

The normal object forms of the pronoun (see day 7) are also used for myself, yourself etc, but the form sig is used for himself / herself / themselves:

  • jeg skærer mig (I cut myself)
  • han / hun / de skærer sig
    (he / she / they cut himself / herself / themselves)

Reflexive verbs (like reflexive verbs in English or German): bekymere sig (worry); glæde sig over (be pleased about); glæde sig til (look forward to); forandre sig (change); forvandle sig til (turn into); rejse sig (get up); klæde sig på (get dressed); skamme sig (be ashamed); øve sig (practice = German sich üben?); forestillle sig (imagine)

Other reflexive verbs (with obvious reflexive meaning): more sig (enjoy oneself): lege sig (be bored); skynde sig (hurry); passe sig selv (mind one’s own business); opføre sig (behave)

Other reflexive verbs (with no obvious reflexive meaning): skabe sig (be silly, skabe = create); komme sig (recover); bryde sig (care for, like)


Selv is used for emphasis:

  • Han gjorde det selv (He did it himself)
  • Hvis du er gammel nok til at barbere dig selv, kan du også klæde dig selv på
    (If you are old enough to shave yourself, you are also old enough to dress yourself.)

Common adverbs

Many adverbs are formed by adding the suffix -t to adjectives, for example godt (well), langt (far) or the suffix -vis, for example heldigvis (luckily), naturligvis (naturally, of course). Some adjectives are used unchanged as adverbs, for example let (lightly).

Some common adverbs:

aldrig
allerede
alligevel
altid
bare/blot/kun
da
desuden
desværre
dog
ellers
endnu
engang
for
ganske
gerne
heldigvis
ikke

never
already
all the same
always
only
then
besides
unfortunately
yet/however
otherwise
still/yet
once
too
quite/rather
willingly
luckily
not

især
langt
længe
muligvis
måske
naturligvis
nu
næsten
ofte, tit
også
pludselig
ret
selvfølgelig
sommetider
straks

undertiden

especially
far
a long time
perhaps
perhaps
of course
now
almost
often
of course
suddenly
somewhat
also
sometimes
immediately
then
occassionally

Some adverbs have irregular comparatives and superlatives: hellere and helst (from gerne, willingly); tiere and tist (from tit, often); oftere and oftest (from ofte, often); længere and lænsgt (from længe, long time)

Conjunctions

Common conjunctions: og (and); eller (or); men (but); samt (plus); så (so); såvel som (as well as); for (because)

Conjunctions relating to time: da / dengang / når (when); for / inden (before); (i)mens (while); indtil (until); siden (since)
Da and dengang are both used about the past, whereas når deals with present, future and repeated past instances:

  • Da Mozart levede, var de rigtigte komponister til!
    (When Mozart lived, there were real composers!)
  • Det var dengang vi så det fem-mastede skoleskib, ikke sandt?
    (That was (the time) when we saw the five-masted training ship wasn’t it?)
  • Det er først rigtig jul, når vi gå i kæde om juletræet.
    (It is only really Christmas when we join hands and walk (in chain) around the Christmas tree.
  • Vi havde det bedste, når vi var hjemme.
    (we had the best when we were at home.)

Comparisons: som (as); ligesom (like, just as); end (than); (lige) så … som ((just) as … as)

Others:

  • cause: fordi (because); da (since); eftersom (as)
  • condition: hvis / om (if); såfremt / hvis (provided); ifald / i tilfælde af at (in case of); bare / blot (if only); med mindre (unless)
  • concession: selvom / skont (although)
  • purpose: for at (in order that, so that)
  • asking and telling: at (that); om (if, whether)

Some of the other words in this chapter

Nouns (like in English or German): en ulykke (-er, accident); en krig (-e, war); en ret (retter, right); strejke (go on strike); ringe til (phone); nødudgang (emergency exit); et slot (-te, palace); en sol (-e, sun); en sø (-er, lake); et chock (-, shock); en taxa (-er, taxi); en fejl (-, mistake); præmie (prize); et fjernsyn (TV); en konge (-r, king);

Other nouns: en læge (-r, doctor); tandlæge (dentist); hvisken (whisper); en hovedpine (-r, headache); en vand (-e, water); et soveværelse (-r, bedroom); en dronning (-er, queen); udtale (pronunciation); en havfrue (-r, mermaid)

Verbs: lære (learn); blive færdig (finish); trække sig tilbage (retire); ramme (hit); gå en tur (go for a walk); standse (stop); drømme (dream); dreje (turn); tåre (tear); begynde (-te, -t, begin); flyde (flow); vågne (wake up); opdage (discover); ske (happen); prøve (try); sove (sleep); rette (correct); mene (mean); fortjene (deserve = German verdienen); give efter (give way, acquiesce); samle op (pick up); bære (carry)

Adjectives: [næsten] uhørlig ([almost] inaudible); mistænkeligt (suspicious); træt (tired); tilfreds (satisfied); forkert (wrong = German verkehrt); alene (alone); almindelig (ordinary); klodset (clumsy); berømt (famous); kostbar (precious, costly); modbydeligt (repulsive); fransk (French); pragtvuld (splendid = German prachtvoll); ærtig (honest)

Other words: ind (in); selv (even); ordentligt (properly); helt (wholly); uanset (regardless); bestemt (certainly); ned (down); endelig (finally);

Phrases: nu om dage (these days); i radioen (on the radio); i deres alder (at their age); nej, vel (no, you don’t, do you?)

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