Scandinavian language challenge day 31

Today I worked through chapter 10 of Danish in three months, covering:

  • passive
  • impersonal forms
  • more on prepositions
  • other words

Passive

One version of the passive is formed by replacing the -r ending on the present tense with -s, or by adding -s to the past tense:

at behandles
vi behandles
jeg behandledes

to be treated
we are treated
I was treated

Den hest behandles dårligt af sin eier og bruges hårdt
(the horse is treated badly by its owner and is used hard)

The passive can also be used impersonally:
Der drikkes for meget alkohol i dag
(there is too much alcohol drunk today)

The -s ending can’t be used in other tenses.


The other form of the passive uses the verb bli (become) with the past participle.

  • de bliver vist (they are shown)
  • hun blev husket (she was remembered)
  • lyset er blevet slukket (the light has been turned off)

The past participle can also be used adjectivally:
Lyset er / var slukket (the light is / was off)

The passive can be avoided by using the impersonal man:
Man behandler den hest dårligt.

Impersonal Forms

  • det regner (it’s raining)
  • det øser ned (it’s pouring)
  • det sner (it’s snowing)
  • det lyner og tordner (there’s lightning and thunder)
  • det klør (I’m itching)
  • det går darligt (things are going badly)
  • det siges, at vi får en kold vinter (it is said we will have a cold winter)
  • det var mig, som gjorde det (it was me who did it)

Der is the equivalent of impersonal English there:

  • Der er ingen tvivl om hans ærlighed
    (there is no doubt about his honesty)

Some impersonal expressions have a personal subject in English:
det glæder mig at høre det (I’m pleased to hear it)

Phrases using det (or colloquially den):

  • hav det sjovt – og rart (have fun – and a nice time)
  • den går ikke, gamle dreng (that won’t do, old boy)
  • det skal guderne vide (goodness knows, the gods must know)

More on prepositions

Some uses of for:

  • søg ly for blæsten (take shelter from the wind)
  • dag for dag (day by day)
  • hvad er det for noget (what is that)
  • jeg ku’ ikke gøre for det (i coudn’t help it
  • for at (in order to): jeg kommer for at hente dig (I’m coming to fetch you)

Some uses of med (with):

  • tag med tog (go by train)
  • med andre ord (in other words
  • skidt med det! (never mind)
  • med mindre (unless)

Some uses of over:

  • På kortet over London ser du broen over Themsen
    (on the map of London you see the bridge over the Thames)
  • klag over det (complain about it)
  • vi vandt over dem (we defeated them)
  • er du kommet over din forkølelse? (Have you got over your cold?)

Some uses of til (to, for):

  • det er telefon til dig (there’s a phone call for you)
  • til gavn for landet (for the benefit of the country)
  • Hvad siger du til det? (What do you say about that?)
  • til venstre (on the left)
  • god til at læse dansk (good at reading Danish)
  • vant til at blive adlydt (used to being obeyed
  • Folk var nødt til at spise bark (poeple had to eat bark)
  • jeg skulle lige til at gøre det (I was just about to do it)
  • Har du lagt mærke til, at det er meget dyrere end for ti år siden at leve over evne ?
    (Have you noticed that it is much more expensive than ten years ago to live above your means?
  • Undskyld, jeg kom til at drikke din Champagne
    (sorry, I happened to drink your champagne)

Hos (with, at) = French chez, German bei.

Some of the other words in this chapter

Some of the compounds in this chapter: bedstefar (grandfather); oldemødre (grandmothers); barnebarn (grandchild, plural børnebørn); barnevogn (pram); brugtvogn (used car); bilværksted (garage); hjem vendt (returned home); udenfor (outside); bagved (behind); hurtigtog (fast train); overnatte (stay overnight); en børnehave (n-r, nursery school); dyereven (-ner, animal lover)

Nouns: forhandler (dealer); en skjorte -r, (shirt); en lygte (lamp); øjeblik (moment); et skib (-e, ship); paaseger (-er, passenger); en færge (-r, ferry); told (customs duty); lærer (male teacher); et indkøb (-, purchase shopping); en handske (-r, glove);

Other nouns: en forbryder (-, criminal); et lys (-e, light, candle); en pelskåbe (–r, fur coat)

Verbs: samle (gather); hade (hate); vaske (wash); feje (sweep = German fegen); tænde (light = German zünden?); nyde (enjoy = German geniessen); betale (pay); betale sig (pay, be worth it); beholde (keep); hjælpe (help)

Other verbs: trænger til (need); køre (drive); omtale (talk about); trække vejr (draw breath, breathe); foretrække (pref)

Adjectives: mørkegrå (dark grey); lyseblå (light blue); hård (hard); tankefuld (thoughtful); forsigtig (careful); tilfældig (chance = German zufällig); farlovet (engaged = German verlobt); gal (mad); død (dead); kedelig (boring); blæsende (windy); samme (same)

Other words: væk (away); som om (as if); huske (remember); en hel del (a lot); ked af det (sorry); nede (down)

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