Scandinavian language challenge day 39

Today I worked through the last chapter (chapter 12) of Norwegian in three months, covering:

  • more about prepositions
  • past participle used as an adjective
  • colloquial speech
  • greetings and congratulations
  • other words

More about prepositions

Some verbs and adjectives with av (by): le av (laught at); lide av (suffer from); stolt av (be proud of)

Some verbs and adjectives with over: klage over (or på) (complain about); skuffet over (disappointed with); glede seg over (rejoice at)

Some verbs or adjectives with other prepositions: lengte etter (long for); stri (streve) med (work hard at); interessere seg for (be interested in)


Prepositions are often used with an infinitive where English would use a form in -ing:

  • Hun gleder seg til å komme (she looked forward to coming)
  • Han var redd for å dø (he was afraid of dying)
  • De var trette av å gå (they were tired of walking)

Some other uses of prepositions:

  • jeg har vondt i hodet (I have a headache)
  • Er du kald på føttene? (are your feet cold?
  • Vask deg i ansiktet! (Wash your face!)
  • Tørk av deg på bene! (Wipe your feet!)
  • a gjøre noe med noe (to do something about something)

Past participle as adjective

The past participle can be used as an adjective. In the definite form and plural forms, -e is added as for other adjectives, but the -t is usually changed to a -d.

  • en ventet virkning (an expected effect); den ventede virkning(en); ventede virkninger; de ventede virkningene
  • et forsikret hus (an insured house); det forsikrede huset; forsikrede hus; de forsikrede husene

The participles of strong verbs often change to -ne:

  • et brukket ben ( broken leg); det brukne benet; brukne ben; de brukne bena

Colloquial speech

Some common tags:

  • Han er i Norge, er han ikke det?
    (He’s in Norway, isn’t he?)
  • Han er ikke hjemme, er han det?
    (He’s not at home, is he?)
  • Du studerer norsk, gjør du ikke det?
    (You are studying Norwegian, aren’t you)
  • Du synes ikke det er for vanskelig, gjør du det?
    (You don’t find it too difficult, do you?)
  • Det er ganske spennende, ikke sant?
    (It’s quite exciting, isn’t it?)
  • Det er litt tidlig, vet du.
    (It’s a bit early, you know)
  • Møtet er utsatt, tror jeg.
    (The meeting has been postponed, I believe)
  • Hun kunne ikke komme, forstår du.
    (She couldn’t come, you see)

Examples of some adverbs used without specific meaning (discourse particles):

  • Hvordan har du det, forresten?
    (By the way, how are they?)
  • Vi er jo venner.
    (After all, we are friends.)
  • Jeg føler meg liksom (så) svimme.
    (I feel kind of dizzy.)
  • Det kommer nok av varmen.
    (That’s probably due to the heat.)
  • morsomt at du kunne komme!
    (I’m so glad you could come.)
  • Han har vel forsovet seg.
    (He must have overslept, I suppose.)
  • Ja da! (certainly); Adjø da! (bye-bye); Kom nå da! (Oh, come on!); Enn jeg da! (What about me?); Vær så god da! (please help yourself); Fy da! (For shame!)

Greetings and congratulations

Greetings:

  • God dag; god morgen; god aften (god kvell)
  • Morn (hello); hej (hi)
  • hyggelig å hilse på Dem (pleased to meet you)
  • velkommen

Thanks and congratulations:

  • Takk for meg! (thank you for having me)
  • Takk for maten! (thanks for the meal)
  • Takk for sist! (thank you for the previous time)
  • Gratulerer! / Til lykke!

Taking leave:

  • Adjø / Farvel (both formal)
  • Morn da (morn)! (informal)
  • Ha det bra! (formal) / Ha det! (informal) (Have a good time!)
  • På gensyn (so long!)
  • Vi sees! (see you later)
  • God helg! (have a good weekend)

Please:

  • vær så snill (polite request)
  • vær så god (permission / consent: please do)

Both of these expressions can be introduced with either og and a new clause or å plus infinitive:

  • vær så snill og send meg sukkeret [or: å sende meg …
    (please pass me the sugar)
  • vær så god å forsyne deg [or: og forsyn deg]
    (please help yourself)

Some of the other words in this chapter

Nouns (like in English or German): seieren (the victory = German Sieg?); nederlaget (defeat); spilleren (the player); landskampen i fotball (international football match); mindreverdighetsfølelsen (the inferiority complex); bjørnen; overraskelsen (the surprise); havnen (the port)

Other nouns: idretten (the sport); laget (the team (forball-); dommeren (the referee); et gjerde (fence); en veske (handbag); lommetørklet (the handkerchief); oppholdt (stay); lykke / hell (luck); sannhet (the truth)

Some words about the landscape: fossen (the waterfall); å heve seg (to tower); kystlandskapet (coastal landscape); klippen (the rock); fjellveggen (the maintain wall); midnattssolen (the midnight sun); inne i landet (inland); reinsdyret (the reindeer)

Verbs (like in English or German): skylde (blame); skade (injure); lide (led, lidt) av (suffer from); berolige (calm down); ta feil (be wrong)

Other verbs: tape (lose); føle trang til (feel like); ligne på (resemble); frigjøre (liberate); tro (think, believe); innse (-så, -sett, realise); innrømme (admit); glemme (forget);

sant å si (tell the truth); nøle (hesitate)

Adjectives: spent (curious = German gespannt?); kjedelig (boring); umåtlig (immense); fornøyd med (happy with)

Other adjectives: vanlig (ordinary); vennlig (friendly);

Other words and phrases: igjen / enda en gang (again); i så henseende (in that respect); tidlig på året (early in the year); i begynnelsen (in the beginning); gir de beste utbyttet (is the most worthwhile); på begge sider (on both sides); midt blandt (amid); bortenfor (beyond); noensinne (ever)

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published.

%d bloggers like this: