The English verbal ending -s

It is often said that English verbs inflect in the present tense for the person (1st / 2nd / 3rd) and number (singular / plural) of their grammatical subject. In Notes on English Agreement, Richard Kayne provides a different analysis. He suggests that English verbs inflect only for number, not for person. Background Almost all…… Continue reading The English verbal ending -s

Scandinavian language challenge day 34

Today I worked through chapter 11 of Danish in three months, covering: numbers: fractions and collectivesadverbs of place and motionuses of adverbsconjunctions and adverbs used in pairsconfusable nounsother words Numbers: fractions and collectives The adjective halv means half and is inflected in the normal way: På en halVv dag spiste de et halvt får.(in half a…… Continue reading Scandinavian language challenge day 34

Scandinavian language challenge day 26

Today I worked through chapter 8 of Swedish in three months, covering: numbers: ordinaltimeprepositions relating to timeletter writingother words Numbers: ordinal förste (1st)andra (2nd)tredje (3rd)fjärde (4th)femte (5th)sjätte (6th) sjunde (7th)åttonde (8th)nionde (9th)tionde (10th)elfte (11th)tolfte (12th) trettonde (13th) etctjugonde (20th):tjugoförste (21st)hundrade (100th)tusende (1,000th)miljonte (millionth) The ordinal numbers do not inflect for gender. Time Veckodag (-en, -ar, day…… Continue reading Scandinavian language challenge day 26

Scandinavian language challenge day 24

Today I worked through chapter 8 of Norwegian in three months, covering: pluperfectverbs conjugated with væreprepositionsdet erindefinite pronounsmore on numbersweatherother words Pluperfect The pluperfect is formed by combining the past tense of the auxiliary har with the past participle. Vi hadde vært på en fotballkamp(We had been to a football match) Verbs conjugated with være As…… Continue reading Scandinavian language challenge day 24

Scandinavian language challenge day 18

Today I worked through chapter 5 of Norwegian in three months, covering: the past tense of weak verbs and strong verbsadverbsword orderordinal numbers Past tense: weak verbs Most weak verbs form the past tense by adding the suffix -et or -te to the stem. (Verbs with a stem ending in -ll, -mm or -nn drop the…… Continue reading Scandinavian language challenge day 18

Scandinavian language challenge day 16

Today I worked through chapter 5 of Danish in three months, covering: numbers (cardinal and ordinal)past tense and past participlesome common irregular verbsperfect tenseother words Numbers 0123456789101112132021 Cardinalnulén / ettotrefirefemsekssyvottenitiellevetolvtrettentyveenogtyve Ordinalførsteandentrediefjerdefemtesjettesyvendeottendeniendetiendeelvtetolvtetrettendetyvendeenogtyvende 14-19 are: fjorten, femten, seksten, sytten, atten, nitten. Their ordinals are formed by adding -de, for example fjortende. For the 10s from 30 to 90,…… Continue reading Scandinavian language challenge day 16

Scandinavian language challenge day 12

Today I worked through the third chapter of Norwegian in three months, covering: commands and requestsquestion wordsmore negative wordsdemonstrativesnumbers to 100other words Commands and requests The imperative is the same as the stem of the verb. It is formed by removing the suffix -e from the infinitive.For verbs ending in a stressed vowel, the stem is…… Continue reading Scandinavian language challenge day 12

Scandinavian language challenge day 11

Today I worked through the third chapter of Swedish in three months, covering: possessivecommands and requestsmodal auxiliary verbsadjectives: indefinite suffixesit: common and neuter formsnumbers above 20other words Possessives Nouns add the suffix -s to form the possessive (genitive). Example: Sveriges huvedstad (Sweden’s capital). A definite article may be added to the possessor (first noun) but…… Continue reading Scandinavian language challenge day 11

Scandinavian language challenge day 8

Today I worked through the second chapter of Swedish in three months, covering: object pronounsverbs: present tensesentence building: questions and answersnegativesquestion word: who, whatplural of the definitive articlethe preposition pånumbers 11-20other words Object pronouns MeYou (familiar)You (polite)HimHerIt (common)It (neuter)UsYou (pl. fam)You (pl. pol)They DanishmigdigDemhamhendedendetosjerDemdem SwedishmigdighonomhennedenDetosserdem Verbs: present tense There are 4 classes of verbs. Class…… Continue reading Scandinavian language challenge day 8

Scandinavian language challenge day 5

Today I worked through the first chapter of Swedish in three months. This chapter introduces: the verbs to be and to havesubject pronounsarticles and nounsplurals of nounsnumbers from zero to tenquestion formseveryday expressionsother words The verbs to be and to have The infinitive of the verb to be is att vara (Danish is at være)…… Continue reading Scandinavian language challenge day 5