German and English Academic Usage and academic translation

I have just started reading German and English Academic Usage and Academic Translation (2021), by Dirk Siepmann. This starts with an exercise of translating a short passage of German academic text. It is only one paragraph, though quite a long one: Seit Mitte der 1980er Jahre hat Michel Espagne sukzessive das Themenfeld des interkulturellen Transfers…… Continue reading German and English Academic Usage and academic translation

Negating a verb using an auxiliary verb

English, like many other verbs, uses an invariable particle or adverb (not) to turn a positive verb into a negative verb. But Finnish does this differently, using an auxiliary verb for this task. Present tense In the present tense: a positive verb ends in a suffix showing the number (singular / plural) and person (1st…… Continue reading Negating a verb using an auxiliary verb

Existential Perfect in Hungarian

Hungarian uses only stress and a change in word order to express a meaning sometimes called the existential perfect. This meaning refers to an event that occurred at least once in the past or will occur at least once in the future. The number of times the event occurred (or will occur) is indefinite). Background:…… Continue reading Existential Perfect in Hungarian

Perfect tense: lifetime effects

The perfect tense in English reports past events that continue to have an effect in the present. This leads to some interesting effects that are sometimes called lifetime ‘effects’. This name is used because whether a sentence is acceptable (felicitous) depends on whether it relates to a person or subject that still exists. For example,…… Continue reading Perfect tense: lifetime effects

Scandinavian language challenge day 29

Today I worked through chapter 9 of Swedish in three months, covering: indefinite and negative pronouns and adjectivesformation of adverbscomparative and superlativeinfinitive with and without attother words Indefinite and negative pronouns and adjectives The following are both pronouns and adjectives: någon (neuter: något, plural: några): something, someone, some, anything, anyone, anyingen (inget, inga): nothing, no-one, no…… Continue reading Scandinavian language challenge day 29

Scandinavian language challenge day 24

Today I worked through chapter 8 of Norwegian in three months, covering: pluperfectverbs conjugated with væreprepositionsdet erindefinite pronounsmore on numbersweatherother words Pluperfect The pluperfect is formed by combining the past tense of the auxiliary har with the past participle. Vi hadde vært på en fotballkamp(We had been to a football match) Verbs conjugated with være As…… Continue reading Scandinavian language challenge day 24

Scandinavian language challenge day 21

Today I worked through chapter 6 of Norwegian in three months, covering: perfect tensemodal auxiliary verbscomparison of adverbsmore about adverbsexpressions of timeother words Perfect tense The perfect tense is formed by using the auxiliary ha (have) with the past participle. For some verbs, the auxiliary være instead of ha (to be covered in chapter 7). Example:I…… Continue reading Scandinavian language challenge day 21

Scandinavian language challenge day 20

Today I worked through chapter 6 of Swedish in three months, covering: conjunctionsword order in subordinate clausesmore about word order in main clausesperfect and pluperfect tensesirregular verbsother words Conjunctions Co-ordinating conjunctions link main clauses together. Common examples: ellerförmen orbeforebut utanochså afterandso Eller is used in a common form of tag question:Han har två bilar, eller hur.He…… Continue reading Scandinavian language challenge day 20

Scandinavian language challenge day 16

Today I worked through chapter 5 of Danish in three months, covering: numbers (cardinal and ordinal)past tense and past participlesome common irregular verbsperfect tenseother words Numbers 0123456789101112132021 Cardinalnulén / ettotrefirefemsekssyvottenitiellevetolvtrettentyveenogtyve Ordinalførsteandentrediefjerdefemtesjettesyvendeottendeniendetiendeelvtetolvtetrettendetyvendeenogtyvende 14-19 are: fjorten, femten, seksten, sytten, atten, nitten. Their ordinals are formed by adding -de, for example fjortende. For the 10s from 30 to 90,…… Continue reading Scandinavian language challenge day 16

Mnemonics in language learning

Mnemonics can help in learning languages. Here are three I learnt at school. German: Fudgebow This mnemonic is of the 7 basic prepositions that take the accusative case: Für: forUm: aroundDurch: throughGegen: againstEntlang: along (actually a post-position, it generally follows the noun, all the others precede it) Bis: untilOhne: withoutWider: against (not to be confused…… Continue reading Mnemonics in language learning